In principle, the concept of resource in project management methodology is broad: everything the project - including labor, financial and logistical resources, the project team, time, information, knowledge and technology - is interrelated resources project. The main task of resource management - to ensure their optimal use to achieve the ultimate goal of project management - project outcomes forming the planned indicators.
The draft focuses on two interrelated groups of resources. logistical - raw materials, materials, structures, components, energy resources, fuel, resources such as "power" or technological resources. installed equipment, etc. labor - carry out direct work with the material and technical resources.
Unplayable, in stock, accumulated - in the course of work are spent entirely, preventing reuse. Not involved in a given period of time, they can be used in the future. Playable, Nonstock, non-accumulating - in progress retain their natural- material form and, as a release may be operated in other jobs. If these resources are idle, they are capable of functioning unused in a given time is not compensated in the future, ie, they do not accumulate. Therefore, the resources of the second type are also called resources such as "power."
Concept of resources is interconnected with the concept of "work", because the resources are not correlated with the project as a whole and certain work performed in a planned sequence, corresponding to the schedule of the project.
As part of the scheduling of the project describes the resource requirements of the work as a function of need. Need work storable resources described by a function of intensity costs showing the rate of consumption of the resource depending on the phase of work, or cost function, showing the total accumulated amount of resources required depending on the phase.
Resource management processes. Resource Management provides a number of basic processes, including procurement, supply, distribution of resources and inventory management resources.
Purchases resources - a central element of the resource management system. We present the basic concepts. Under procurement understand measures aimed at ensuring the projects resources - ie property (goods), execution of works, the transfer of results of intellectual creativity in connection with a specific project . Procurement and supply are interrelated and , in fact, are two sides of the processes of logistics project.
Procurement management, logistics project - project management subsystem, including the processes of acquisition of goods, products and services for the project from external provider organizations. The subsystem consists of planning the logistics, supplier selection, contracting and managing them, ensure supply, completing contracts.
Supply Management released along with the management of procurement as an independent subsystem. Includes: planning supplies. accounting organization. shipping, receiving and storage of goods, accounting and control of delivery.
Planning and organization of procurement and supply - the first step in the management of project resources. Planning and organization are carried out on the basis of design and estimate documentation in conjunction with the overall project plan and to take into account the duration of the cycle of procurement and delivery of goods. Consists of steps, including selection of suppliers, placing orders and control transfers.
Selection of suppliers is based on the study qualification questionnaires designed to illuminate the managerial, technical, operational and financial capabilities, the list of candidates being developed based on the study questionnaires, consistent with the customer and the project manager and the final selection of suppliers is carried out as a result of trading.
Placing orders - in conjunction with the project organization developed to standardize procurement activities, general orders are issued only on the basis of the work to reduce the range of procurement bid evaluation and tendering prior to the conclusion of contracts, the latter produced as a result of additional meetings and agreements with the successful bidder on the transport requirements and storage of goods, as well as the order of payments and bonuses.
Control transfers - is based on special schedules; organized for each type of supply, based on the overall project plan, all changes made to the overall project schedule, based on standard reporting forms.
Procurement processes are the most difficult to manage resources and require careful consideration. Here are a number of basic concepts in a logical sequence.
Wednesday, affecting procurement - a combination of internal and external forces, both individually and in concert with each other, which promotes or hinders the achievement of the objective of procurement. These forces may be associated with a business project or due to political, economic, technological or organizational circumstances.
Procurement strategy for the project - a system of methods and principles of procurement relationship specificity for a specific project with the environment of the project.
Interconnection project procurement structure works contracts and project stages - formalized: the structure and relationships of the project work required security resources in terms of cuts and contracts.
Procurement planning by contract - the process by which formed procurement documentation that establishes the principles of procurement activities, detailing the procurement process time, cost, performers, vendors, contracts, project stages and types of resources.
Preliminary assessment of procurement opportunities - assessment of the experience, performance indicators, opportunities, resources and the current workload of potential suppliers.
Selecting sources of procurement - the process of selecting individuals or organizations whose resources, reliability and operational performance, are expected to achieve the goals of procurement.
Evaluation of the sources of procurement - general study of potential suppliers to send them a request for proposals or to start negotiations with them to sign the contract.
Projects in the planning stage to pursue a balanced analysis of the work packages and resources consumed within the constraints and their predictive distribution based on the schedules of resource requirements. Resource planning project - time basis for determining resource requirements and determine whether the provision of resources for contracts for procurement of resources, supply planning resources as well as the basis for allocation of resources purchased for the project work.
Resource planning involves a number of components, including: the development and balanced analysis of the work packages and resources to achieve the objectives of the project, development of the system of resource allocation and assignment of responsible, progress control - comparing planned with actual work settings and develop corrective effects.
Resources appear as providing components of the project, including performers, energy, materials, equipment, etc. Accordingly, each job can be associated function resource requirements and scheduling methods to calculate the resource requirements for the whole project and alignment methods to ensure that the needs presence or possibility of the provision of resources.
There are two main methods for resource planning project: resource planning while limiting the time, planning with limited resources. The first approach - resource planning while limiting time - suggests a fixed date of completion of the project and the appointment of additional resources for project periods of congestion. The second approach - planning with limited resources - suggests that initially a predetermined amount of available resources can not be changed and is the main limitation of the project.
As a result, resource planning project manager is able to move to the next phase of resource management - procurement and supply resources.
The main objective of the design and procurement phase of the project - to ensure delivery of equipment, structures, materials and services in strict accordance with the project plan. This process can be divided into two parts: the procurement of resources and services on a competitive basis. delivery to the job site.
Structure of the problems of logistics projects enlargement reduced to the following steps: preparation of specifications and technical conditions that characterize the quantity and quality of the necessary equipment, machinery, structures, materials, services, planning and organization of the procurement process, the study of possible sources of procurement resources and negotiations with potential suppliers, pre-selection of bidders, preparation of bidding documents, bidding and award decision contracts applicants, won the bidding, ordering, including negotiations on deliveries, control transfers to the adoption of the necessary measures in case of deviations. conflict resolution, settlements, hiring the necessary expertise, including consultants, supply planning, business accounting, delivery, receipt and storage of goods, accounting and control of delivery.
Legal regulation of the procurement and supply. Main legal form of organization and regulation of relations in procurement between the parties - the contract. Supply contract - a contract under which the supplier is an entrepreneur undertakes in due time pass into the ownership of the goods, intended for business and other purposes not related to personal consumption, and the buyer agrees to accept the goods and pay for it a price.
Organizational forms of procurement. There are the following organizational procurement forms: direct, in which the legal relationship exists between the two entities procurement between the two is the relevant contract. Precede direct purchases usually trades, but can be implemented and direct purchases without bidding. mediation, in which the person performing the project enters into a legal relationship with the intermediary, ie a person who contributes to the project with the necessary resources, the stock in which members exchange stock trading is carried out: directly on its own behalf and at its own expense, from the client's behalf and at his expense, in its own name for the account of the client, the client's behalf at its own expense. Visitors exchange trading may be legal and natural persons who are not members of the exchange and having the right to perform exchange transactions.
Requirements for procurement and supply management. Consider the requirements for some of the above steps in the cycle of procurement and supply characteristic of a market economy: akupki and deliveries are made on the basis of project documentation. graphics are developed in conjunction with the overall project plan and to take into account the duration of all its phases. plan should cover the entire project, choice of procurement shall be based on value choices, defined in terms of the structure and the persons responsible for each item to be delivered.
You can select the following types of commodity markets: product markets, the acquisition of which the consumer is guided by established standards, adequately characterize it in terms of the possibilities of using. These include steel markets, fuel, chemicals, cement, building materials, versatile equipment. For this type of market, the following forms of economic relations: trade through commodity exchanges or specialized intermediary organizations of various types, markets products that a consumer can purchase guided by samples or catalogs of manufacturers. This - the markets of instrumentation, tools, electrical, electronic and radio industry, commercial equipment, etc. For this type of market is the most natural participation universal wholesale and intermediary organizations, firms - "integrators" through trade fairs and product requiring adjustment and maintenance - through proprietary trading, wholesale and specialized service firms, markets products sold to individual customers' orders. It markets the unique equipment, rolling mills, large energomashin, automatic lines, chemical equipment, etc. For most of these markets are natural direct links between enterprises, corporate principle of trade, the existence of specialized components organizations.
Contracts for the supply of material and technical resources. In modern conditions of supply have taken the form of exchange of goods. Supply contract goods has become a fundamental document regulating the timing, amount and terms of delivery. Project manager becomes a key figure in coordinating the delivery of the benefit of the whole project.
Planning supplies. Initial data for resource scheduling software projects are the following documents: the schedule of construction and installation work at the facilities. schedule commissioning of facilities and jobs at the end stages of construction and installation work, annual procurement plan resources. annual schedule delivery of materials from the specialized trade organizations, treaties and specifications. regulatory and technological documentation for logistics and packaging, information on the implementation of the plan of construction and installation work for the period prior to the planned, information on the commissioning of the object and the end stages of construction work for the period prior planned, information about the execution of orders for the period prior to the planned. traffic information remnants of building materials, technical production rates of building materials; norms inventory.
On the basis of the calendar application graphics and technical standards defined by the need for object structures, materials and semi-finished in stages according to their composition in accordance with technological kits. Calculated object need - the basis for the development of quarterly orders for the project.
Delivery of material and technical resources. Organization of material support construction projects is based on a system of production and technological integration. This system involves the complete unity of manufacturing designs and products, supply and transportation of all material resources in accordance with the process sequence of the project contributes to the most rational and economical use of resources.
During the development phase of the project a model of technological integration. As part of the project plans developed certain unified regulatory process documentation - a set of documents, which is the regulatory framework production and technological integration project. Kits structures, products and materials are to be supplied simultaneously, usually in readiness for a complete processing productive use containers and packages directly into the working area of the project.
Questions procurement and supply management interrelated issues of inventory management resources. For addressing issues "that need to purchase" the following decisions: how much to buy, and in accordance with the determined - how much of each resource must have a certain reserve in order to: minimize the risk of suspension of production due to lack of resources for the production of works. ensure rhythmic production between moments supply resource.
Problem definition and regulation of supplies and stocks belongs to a class of optimization problems of resource management. As the objective function in inventory management are the total expenses for the maintenance of stocks on warehouse operations, losses from damage during storage, etc. Naturally, these costs must be minimized. Adjustable parameters in this problem is the size of stocks, the frequency, timing and amount of recharge. readiness resource stored in the form of stock.
Reorder point, or threshold margin - the minimum value of the resource stock, at which a new order is needed to replenish it, or point in time when the order is to be made.
Insurance reserve - the minimum suitable headroom designed for uninterrupted supply of production in the event of stroke compared with deliveries scheduled. Safety stock is determined by the optimization calculation, which take into account the conditions of supply of resources, substantial resources for the smooth progress of the project, there are risks of supply, etc.
Concept does not apply to stocks of all kinds of resources. In general terms, stocks are defined as resources that are stored in warehouses, and include: inventories. WIP, finished goods in stock.
Under inventory management meant inventory control and decision-making aimed at saving time and money by minimizing the costs of maintaining reserves necessary for the effective implementation of the project.
Inventory management is complicated by the ever-changing environment in which planning is carried out procurement, delivery and stockpiling of resources. The purpose of the inventory management system - to ensure uninterrupted supply during the work on the project in a timely and planned quality at the lowest possible cost for the maintenance of stocks.
Types of stocks. Each of the types of stocks performs certain functions. Consider the most common types of stocks.
Transit reserves - some resources for transit storage stocks of raw materials with a further allocation of resources with transportation over short distances. To reduce transit inventories are various ways, including local suppliers, the formation of small parties resources.
Linear reserves - formed of goods in transit, moving from suppliers to consumers or production. Factors determining the size of linear reserves: the transportation, the distance by which the dangerous goods. optimality of economic relations between suppliers and consumers, and the coefficient zvennosti goods movement during handling, etc. The size of reserves is largely dependent on the time of transportation and relatively - from time to time to promote products.
Expenditures for the formation and storage of stocks. Maintenance of stocks inevitably entail costs. The most famous types of inventory carrying costs: space, rent and the cost of risk. Formation costs and inventory carrying costs are associated with: the diversion of current assets in stocks of raw materials, etc.ongoing maintenance inventories, including the cost of holding inventory, interest rates on bank credit, etc. storage costs, the cost of risk.
By a space meant depreciation expense, maintenance, heating, etc., occupied by the stock room. Rent is the expenditure on capital invested in the stock.
Under the cost of risk refers to the implications of various insurance claims, as well as the valuation of risk in cash. The cost of these risks with varying degrees of accuracy is expressed through insurance costs through tariffs and rates of insurance premiums.
Unclaimed stocks can lead to substandard, destruction and sale at discount prices.