Management Styles

Allocate the following management styles. Authoritarian (or prescriptive or dictatorial) - it is characterized by the adoption of a rigid sole leader of all solutions ("a minimum of democracy"), hard-standing control the fulfillment of the threat of punishment ("maximum control"), lack of interest in the employee as an individual. Due to constant monitoring, this management style provides quite acceptable results (for non-psychological criteria: income, productivity, product quality may be good), but the disadvantages more than advantages:
1) a high probability of erroneous decisions.
2) suppression of the initiative and creativity of subordinates, slowing innovation, stagnation, passivity employees, and.
3) job dissatisfaction, his position in the team, and.
4) an adverse psychological climate ("sycophants," "scapegoats" and intrigue) causes increased psychological stress-strain is harmful to physical and mental health . This management style is appropriate and justified only in critical situations (accidents, combat military operations, etc.).

Democratic (or collective) - management decisions based on discussion of the problem, considering the opinions and initiatives of employees ("maximum democracy"), execute the decisions taken and controlled by the supervisor and by the employees themselves ("maximum control"), a leader is interested and friendly attention to individual employees, takes into account their interests, needs, characteristics.

Democratic style is the most effective, as it provides a high probability of correct, informed decisions, high production work results, initiative, activity staff, people's satisfaction with their work and membership in a collective favorable psychological climate and cohesion of the team. However, the implementation of a democratic style is possible with high intellectual, organizational, communication skills psychologically head.

Liberal-anarchist (or permissive, or neutral) - is characterized, on the one hand, "the maximum of democracy" (everyone can express their positions, but real consideration, coordination of positions do not seek to achieve), and on the other hand, the "minimum control" (even decisions are not met, there is no control over their implementation, all started up to chance), so that results are generally low, people are not satisfied with their jobs, manager, psychological climate in the team unfavorable, there is no cooperation, there is no incentive to work conscientiously, sections consist of interests of individual leaders subgroups possible covert and overt conflict, is a bundle on conflicting subgroups.

Inconsistent (illogical) - manifested in an unpredictable leader transition from one style to another (ie, authoritarian, permissive then, the democratic, the newly authoritarian, etc.), resulting in extremely low results and the maximum number of conflicts and problems.

Effective management styles manager is flexible, individual and situational approach.

Situational management style allows for flexibility in the level of psychological development of subordinates and staff. Effective management style (according to the majority of foreign experts in management) is a participatory (accessary style). This style is appropriate in knowledge-intensive industries, firms innovative type in scientific organizations.