Management Development

Management development. Like any other activity, management of development can be based on different approaches. Often managers, exercising actual control, not aware of their actions and the grounds can not answer the question of why they do so. To improve its mode of action, we must be able to distinguish it from other methods, to understand its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with them. Necessary to distinguish between approaches to development on those fundamental settings that determine the nature of planning, organizing, directing and controlling. In general we can distinguish the following features distinguish approaches to development: the subject of management development, management orientation, integrity management, the type of response to changes in management.

The subject of management development. This feature allows you to set - whether acts as a subject only administration of the organization or the development of plans, discussing progress, decision-making is widely involved the labor collective. In the first case we speak of an administrative approach to management, and the second - on participatory (participating) approach.

Orientation control. This feature allows you to set - oriented management of the process or the outcome (target control).

In managing the process-oriented, subject, ensuring the development of some innovations not imagine clearly expected outcome. He believes that innovation will improve outcomes, but what exactly will be expressed to improve and how they can be assessed, it is vague. It is important for the process of development of innovations. With this type of management innovations are not chosen because they are able to give the most useful effect, and for some other reasons.

When the target is first determined by the management of the desired result, and then sought or developed that innovation, which will allow him to get Every innovation is evaluated primarily in terms of which the beneficial effect it can give.

Integrity management - the third distinguishing feature of approaches to management development. Distinguish managing for autonomous, independent from each other innovations development and management, focused on the implementation of the totality of innovation as an integral complex (system management).

Independent control assumes that each of the innovations being developed in the organization by one person or a group, and complete project future of the organization does not exist.

System management involves the development project for the future of the organization and its program implementation in which each particular innovation is the implementation of the general plan.

Type of response management changes that require solutions - the fourth essential feature distinguishing approaches to development. On this basis, two types of control: anticipatory and reactive.

Effective management should, to the extent possible, anticipate, expect realistically achievable goals (outcomes), as well as timely foresee the emergence of factors that impede their achievement, and to respond to them before their action will lead to negative consequences. The earlier detected the need for solutions, the more opportunities to avoid big losses. But most often begin to develop solutions when there were already some failures (failures) in a managed object and the actual situation becomes obviously not the same as it was expected.

Control type, characterized the response to the incident has called reactive.

In contrast, the forward control does not respond to failures and their precursors. This is possible if sufficiently developed detailed action plans and projected changes in the business.

It should be borne in mind that none of the approaches to the management of development is not the best. Depending on the conditions can be effective different approaches. Thus, participative (democratic) control does not always lead to better results than administrative. Also, when for some reason there is a strict time limit on the planning of the organization, the administrative approach - the only possibility. Systematic approach requires highly skilled managers, it is laborious. If the situation is relatively stable, the reactive control can give the same results as the anticipatory. The choice of approach should be based on the actual conditions. But the closer to the system- management target, the greater the potential it has to ensure the effectiveness of organization development.

This classification approaches to the management of development enables us to determine which approach is implemented in a particular organization.