Knowledge management is the methodological influence on the knowledge base of a company (organizational knowledge management) or of oneself (Personal Knowledge Management). Under the knowledge base of all data and information, all the knowledge and skills to be understood that this organization or person to solve their manifold tasks or should have.
In organizational knowledge management individual knowledge and skills (human capital)should be systematically anchored at different levels of the organizational structure. Organizational knowledge management can thus be understood as intervening action, based on the theories of organization theory and organizational learning and want to convert these systematically into practice.
As a result of today's knowledge-and innovation-oriented communications era, the existing knowledge in the company capital is increasingly becoming a key factor of production. The knowledge within an organization is thus understood as a production factor, which occurs in addition to capital, labor and land. Provides the strategic basis for knowledge management especially the Knowledge-based View of the Firm This is an extension of the opinion represents, (eg in the context of market -making and influencing) to see information as a corporate resource or as a production factor. Your vision can make information systems by link their employees communicative and provide information and preserve.
Criticism is mainly an undifferentiated concept of knowledge, which is often not sufficiently distinct from the terms "data" and "information" at the base of knowledge management from the scientific side. Furthermore, an objectively unreasonable or even paradoxical understanding of the factors of production concept is challenged, as it is mainly in the speech of the "intangible resource of knowledge" reflected, as well as a one-sided orientation on certain older, from the modern management theory already partially revised mechanistic control and feasibility of ideas. Also unclear is the legal question of whether and under what conditions organizations (including businesses) do a recovery claim to the individual knowledge bases its members (employees) may assert. Such knowledge bases are to be considered first of all as the (often costly acquired) intellectual private property of their carrier.
This fact is borne in liberal- democratic societies generally reflects these considerations between employers and workers employment contracts are closed, although mete out to employers for a fee payment, the right to exploit the work force, but not at the same time the knowledge of their employees. On such problems occur, according to some authors, an ideological bias (bias) of the knowledge management approach to light, which tends always to mix a theoretical viewing perspective with a practical action or design perspective - a charge that recently and against many "modes myths of management" has been raised.
Despite all objections, in recent years, the boards of many companies around the position of Chief Information Officer (CIO) extended the work focus on information management, which has the task to coordinate the information processing of a company on its overall strategy. The objectives of knowledge management practical to go significantly above the mere supply of employees with information also:
Employees to develop learning skills and abilities and be able to use added value.
The classification of knowledge takes place in two expression Poland: on the one hand the so-called codified knowledge (explicit knowledge), which can be described, and is thus suitable to be kept in documents, and on the other hand, tacit knowledge, which are not or not profitably brought into codifiable form can.
These two extreme forms correspond to the two fundamental strategies of knowledge management which are referred to in English as "people-to -document" (Codification) and "People-to - People". For the dissemination of tacit knowledge other approaches and methods are therefore required than in the area "(bring) people-to -document (s)" where are primarily on database and document management solution based scenarios.
The distinction between explicit vs. tacit knowledge - and the consequent fundamental focus of knowledge management strategy - have especially in business applications (business) is of great importance, since it is precisely here that economic constraints are fully utilized: Genuine expertise, for example, tends strongly to extreme to combine complexity with rather low validity - and the more expertise is something, the more these two factors are combined (high complexity and low duration) pronounced. It is then but in the business context neither useful nor possible to supply this implicit knowledge codification ( documentation), especially on the recipient side, hardly anyone would have the time to read this certainly very extensive documentation.
That is in reverse but nothing more than: for a people-to- Document Strategy (database, document management, etc.) are more suitable for standard content - not very complex and with a long validity.