Lampropeltis zonata parvirubra - San Bernardino Mountain Kingsnake
Considered harmless to humans. (There are no venomous snakes in California that can be mistaken for this snake, but the similar-looking Arizona Coral Snake, found in Arizona, is venomous and dangerous.)
24 - 40 inches long (61 - 101 cm.) Average adult length is 24 - 36 inches (61 - 76 cm.) Hatchlings are 8 - 11 inches in length (20 - 28 cm.)
A medium-sized slender snake with a head not much wider than the cylindrical body with smooth shiny scales. The scale count at mid-body is usually 21 - 23.
Black, red, and white rings circle the body. The red bands are noticably wider than the others, with the white bands wider than the black. Some black bands may widen and cross over the red bands on the back. A red band surrounded by two black bands is referred to as a "triad." On this subspecies there are 23 - 56 triads, with an average of 41. Typically, fewer than 60 percent of the triads have complete red bands with no black crossovers. The bands continue around the belly, but the coloring is paler, and the black and white bands are reduced in size giving the belly a reddish coloring. The nose is black with little or no red. The rear edge of the first white band on the head is on or in front of the last upper labial scale.
Secretive, but not rare in suitable habitat. Spends most of the time underground, under surface objects, or inside rock crevices. Occasionally seen active on the ground in the daytime, especially near shaded streams on hot sunny days. Active during the day at high altitudes during times of low nighttime temperatures (which is typical habitat.) When temperatures are more moderate, it can be crepuscular, nocturnal, and diurnal. During very hot weather, activity is primarily nocturnal. This snake is normally active at temperatures between aproximately 55 - 85 degrees.
Enters into winter hibernation typically around November, emerging some time from February to April, depending on location and weather conditions.
Eats lizards, small mammals, nestling birds, bird eggs, amphibians, and occasionally snakes, including its own species.
Breeding takes place a few weeks after emergence in the spring. Eggs are laid June-July and hatch after 50 - 65 days.
This subspecies, Lampropeltis zonata parvirubra - San Bernardino Mountain Kingsnake, is found in southern California in the San Jacinto, Santa Rosa, San Bernardino, Santa Susana, and San Gabriel Mountains, and the Verdugo Hills.
The species Lampropeltis zonata - California Mountain Kingsnake, occurs from northerm Baja California, to southern Washington. In California it is found in the San Gabriel, San Bernardino, San jacinto, Santa Monica, and Santa Ana mountains of southern California, and throughout the Sierra Nevada mountains into the Tehachapi mountains. It ranges along the south-central coast and through the south coast ranges and part of the Diablo Range, continuing north away from the coast along the north coast ranges into the mountain ranges in the far north of the state. There are unconfirmed sight records from the White Mountains, Mt. Diablo, the interior south coast ranges, Santa Catalina Island, and Marin County.
A habitat generalist, found in diverse habitats including coniferous forest, oak-pine woodlands, riparian woodland, chaparral, manzanita, and coastal sage scrub. Wooded areas near a stream with rock outcrops, talus or rotting logs that are exposed to the sun are good places to find this snake. From 800 ft. to 9,000 ft. on Mt. San Jacinto. (245 - 2750 m).
Rodriguez-Robles, Denardo and Staub (1999 Molecular Ecology 8: 1923-1934) Publication #19 have called into question the recognition of 7 subspecies of Lampropeltis zonata, but not the existence of any subspecies:
"Examination of colour pattern variation in 321 living and preserved specimens indicated that the two main colour pattern characters used to define the subspecies are so variable that they cannot be reliably used to differentiate taxonomic units within this complex, which calls into question the recognition of 7 geographical races of this snake."
Mitochondrial DNA studies found 2 clades of L. zonata, a southern clade from Baja California and southern California, and a northern clade comprised of two subclades - a coastal subclade from the central coast and southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, and a northerneastern subclade of populations north of the San Francisco Bay and most of the Sierra Nevada.
The SSAR, whose taxonomy we follow on this website, does not recognize any subspecies of L. zonata but I will continue to treat separately the 5 traditionally-recognized subspecies found in California to illustrate some of the regional variations found in this snake.
Conservation Issues (Conservation Status)
The State of California considers the subspecies L. z. pulchra - San Diego Mountain Kingsnake to be threatened. It is protected by law. No California mountain kingsnakes can be collected in Orange and San Diego counties, and in Los Angeles County west of Interstate 5.
When slabs are torn off rock outcrops by someone searching for this snake or other reptiles, the habitat this snake uses for refuge is irreparably damaged. It takes thousands of years for this rock fissuring to occur, so this habitat will not be replaced for many centuries. Such rock destruction is illegal in California: "It is unlawful to use any method or means of collecting that involves breaking apart of rocks, granite flakes, logs or other shelters in or under which reptiles may be found." (2007 regulations 5.60.4.)
Reptile hunters are usually blamed for rock habitat destruction, but bulldozers are far more destructive. I have also witnessed people tearing off huge slabs of granite with a crowbar then carrying the slabs back to their truck to haul them away.